Almost every society now has money policy and marketing. Every economy based on money: coins and paper bank notes of one kind or another. Money used for buying or selling goods, for measuring value and for storing wealth. However, this has not always been true. In primitive societies, a system of barter direct exchange of goods was used. But it is necessary to plan money policy for successful development of the country. We need to learn marketing to plan the development of the economy to predict what the people will want and to influence the customer to buy.

The definition of «marketing» is not simple at the present time. Today we can speak of at least two meaning of the word marketing: a traditional one as sales function, and a more contemporary one as the philosophy of business. We have a different approach to the sales problem. We need to have an integrated approach, which includes market and market demand study, consumer study and a lot of other things. You have to be able to make a forecast, to identify the unsatisfied demand and to seek, to develop new products and markets.

Up-to-date marketing policy, technology, advertising and post-sale service must be implied for the development of new products. An important integral part of the marketing today is planning. Planning depends on a thorough situation analysis. When analyzing the situation it is necessary to consider all factors. All kinds of analysis should be carried out by marketing department of a firm. The process is usually computer-assisted. Selling is very important for market development, so let us speak about early forms of exchange. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the marketplace that they considered to be of equal value.

Actually marketing covers not only market research, but also planning the assortment of goods, price policy, advertising and promotion of sales, controlling the sales and post-sales- servicing. So nowadays marketing includes such elements as: planning, market research, new product development, sales and advertising.

(Брюховец Н.А. Английский язык: менеджмент, маркетинг, таможенное дело.)


Пояснения к тексту:

a thorough тщательный

integral внутренний

usually computer-assisted компьютеризирован

approach подход

price policy ценовая политика

equal value одинаковая ценность

6. Письменно ответьте на вопрос к тексту: What can you say about paper money?

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту. (Смотрите образец выполнения в Приложении.)

Вариант 3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое, обращая внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций. Предложения переведите.

1) Your intention to improve advertising in the USA will be discussed later.

2) The trade commission was founded last month.

3) The participant is being asked about the conference.

4) The advertising service is included in marketing policy.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода объектных и субъектных инфинитивных конструкций.

1) He seemed to have heard their talk about advertising means.

2) The quality of advertising policy is likely to be changed.

3) The magazine is known to be popular.

4) I saw her reading the article about advertising.

5) We like the marketing policy to become better.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов.

1) Having read about the American Marketing Association, she called them on.

2) The work being finished, she went to the cinema.

3) The collection being organized, all people wanted to buy fashion coats.

4) He was sitting at the table, his arms crossed on the chest.

5) The weather being changed, we went home at once.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения. Переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода условных предложений.

1) If you had seen the advertisement, you would have known this brand better.

2) If you wanted to improve marketing, you would personalize your adverti-sing (personalize – ориентировать на определенного человека).

3) I shall buy a modern perfume if I have free time before the conference.

5. Прочитайте следующий текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3 и 4-й абзацы.